Wednesday, 30 January 2013

WORD FOR THE DAY: UNIVERSALLY

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Your word for today is: universally, adv.


universallyadv.
[‘In every case or instance; always.’]
Pronunciation: Brit. /ˌjuːnᵻˈvəːsl̩i/, /ˌjuːnᵻˈvəːsəli/,  U.S. /ˌjunəˈvərsəli/
Forms:  see universal adj.n., and adv. and -ly suffix2;  also  ME vniuersali,   ME vniuersaliche,   ME vniuersaly,   ME vniuersely,   ME vnyuersaliche,   ME vnyuersaly,   ME–15 vniuersalye,   16 universaly;   Sc.  pre-17 universale,   pre-17 universalie,   pre-17 vniuersale,   pre-17 vniuersalie,   pre-17 vniuersaly,   pre-17 vniversalie,   pre-17 17 universaly
Etymology: <  universal adj. + -ly suffix2.
 1.  In every case or instance; always.
a1398  J. Trevisa tr. Bartholomaeus Anglicus De Proprietatibus Rerum (BL Add. 27944) (1975) II. xvi. i. 826 He [sc. gravel] hath vniuersaliche kynde of druynge and of clensyng.
?a1425  tr. Guy de Chauliac Grande Chirurgie (N.Y. Acad. Med.:Wallner) iii. 7 Vniuersaly, causez of al solucions of continuite beþ þo forsoþ þat procedeþ fro withoutward Oþer forsoþ of þe selfe body.
1530  J. Palsgrave Lesclarcissement Introd. p. xvii, That thyng happeneth in the soundyng of thre of theyr vowelles onely,..and that nat universally, but onely so often as [etc.].
1544 Exhort. in Priv. Prayers (1851) 565 Universally in all our affairs, whatsoever shall befall unto us.
1613  S. Purchas Pilgrimage ii. vii. 111 The fat and bloud being vniuersally forbidden them for food.
1625  N. Carpenter Geogr. Delineated i. iii. 66 This proportion is not to be taken vniuersally, but commonly for the most part.
a1684  J. Evelyn Diary anno 1654 (1955) III. 110 We all din'd, at that..universaly Curious Dr. Wilkins's.
1755  N. Magens Ess. Insurances II. 189 All Insurances on expected Gains [etc.]..are universally forbid.
1781  Gibbon Decline & Fall (1787) III. xxxviii. 588 Under the empire of Charlemagne, murder was universally punished with death.
1818 Cobbett's Weekly Polit. Reg. 33 180 The chief reason of this universally evil effect.
1871  J. B. Mozley Univ. Serm. (1876) vi. 122 It would not be true..to say that use was universally accompanied by beauty.
1920  L. C. Hale American's London viii. 109, I suppose the word [sc. geyser] is universally mispronounced over here because they have not been brought up in a geyser country.
1951 Univ. Chicago Law Rev. 18 338 Despite their relevancy, uncommunicated threats are not universally held admissible.
1999  N. Summerton Diagnosing Cancer in Primary Care 3 The observation that lung cancer is not universally fatal was an important lesson for myself in writing this book.
 2.  So as to include every individual of a group or number; without exception of any.
In quot. 1673 perh.: all together.
?c1425  T. Hoccleve De Regimine Principum (Royal 17 D.vi) (1897) l. 2454, I wolde that the hye degree Of Chiualrie vniuersally Bare vp his hede.
1497 Rolls of Parl.: Henry VII (Electronic ed.) Parl. Jan. 1497 §10 m. 4, Wollen clothe..by making wherof..the pouer pepull have moste universally their leving.
1561  T. Norton tr. J. Calvin Inst. Christian Relig. iii. f. 210, Not one or two of them, but all the Scholemen vniuersallye.
1590  R. Greene Neuer too Late i. 11 Women are vniuersally mala necessaria, wheresoeuer they be eyther bred or brought vp.
1619  E. M. Bolton tr. Florus Rom. Hist. 212 Spaine neuer had a disposition to rise vniuersally against us.
1662  E. Stillingfleet Origines Sacræ iii. i. §11 It is hardly conceivable..how mankind should universally agree in some common sentiments.
1673  W. Cave Primitive Christianity iii. i. 221 Himself, family, and house [were] universally burnt to ashes.
1709  R. Steele Tatler No. 46. ⁋1 The Zealots..fell universally into this Emperor's Policies.
1798  S. Lee Young Lady's Tale in  H. Lee Canterbury Tales II. 133 A splendid entertainment, to which the English strangers were universally invited.
1847  G. Harris Life Ld. Hardwicke II. 33 The whole nation was universally against it.
1869  H. F. Tozer Res. Highlands of Turkey II. 308 They are almost universally malevolent.
1921 Jrnl. Amer. Oriental Soc. 41 66 Philologists and ethnologists almost universally agree that the Dravidians came into India from the same direction as did the Aryans.
1946 Harper's Mag. Dec. 482/1 There was no revival of the drawl till the West began to succumb to the most damaging of its illusions, the notion that it is universally a race of cowpokes.
2001 Guardian 9 June (Saturday section) 2/1 Universally, we ‘jazzerati’ (another Burns-ism) were happy that the music was again in the popular spotlight.
 3.  So as to affect the whole or every part of something, esp. the human body; all over. rare after 18th cent.
?c1425  tr. Guy de Chauliac Grande Chirurgie (Paris) (1971) 22 Of disposiciouns of þe face.. The firste partie is vnyuersaliche of þe face: as, for to make faire and to make good colour, and to remeue spottes.
?a1525 (1450) Christ's Burial & Resurrection ii. l. 1357 in  F. J. Furnivall Digby Plays (1896) 216 He sufferd patiently..To be woundid vniuersally, With scowrges, nayles, & spere.
1580  T. Blundeville Foure Offices Horsemanship (rev. ed.) iii. 72 If he be vexed with an ague, or with anie other disease, vniuersallie hurting his bodie.
1653  N. Culpeper Pharmacopœia Londinensis 320/2 Such as strengthen Nature against Poyson either do it to the whol Body universally, or else strengthen some particular part thereof.
1736  tr. C. Rollin Anc. Hist. IX. 164 The whole city continued universally in flames.
1758  J. Sparrow tr. H. F. Le Dran Observ. Surg. (1771) 36 The Child seemed to be universally swelled.
1793 Minstrel II. 159 The storm..universally chilled her frame.
1805  E. Clark Banks of Douro II. 280 She trembled so universally, that Lucy gave her some..water to drink.
2006  J. Kanady Capital Offences xxxii. 124 The impact made my body hurt universally when I hit the ground.
 4.  With extension to every part (of a specified whole); in every part or place; everywhere.
?a1430  T. Hoccleve Minor Poems (1892) i. 46 The sonne, of whom hir light Shee [sc the moon] takith, & it vniuerselly Yeueth vn-to the world whan it is nyght.
1577  R. Holinshed Chron. II. 362/1 Murreyn of cattel beganne..so vniuersally in all places, that no towne nor village escaped free.
1664  H. More Modest Enq. Myst. Iniquity xvi. 58 Which implies that the Church has a right..to be universally spred over the face of the Earth.
1664  H. Power Exper. Philos. i. 61 They are universally diffused throughout all Bodies in the World.
1750  tr. C. Leonardus Mirror of Stones p. ix, An age when Superstition universally prevailed.
1796  H. Hunter tr. J. H. B. de Saint-Pierre Stud. Nature V. 188 The opinion..is universally propagated over all the Nations.
1846  J. Baxter Libr. Pract. Agric. (ed. 4) I. 15 It is an element universally present in nature.
1872  R. W. Raymond Statist. Mines & Mining 15 Universally distributed through the vein.
1939  M. Pallis Peaks & Lamas i. vi. 68 We were also shown a scroll-painting of the type found universally in Tibet, and called a t'hanka.
1971  I. G. Gass et al.  Understanding Earth ix. 139/2 Once life had become universally distributed over the face of the globe, it must have prevented the further generation of new life-forms.
2002 Jrnl. Soc. Archit. Historians 61 339/2 The general preference for concentrating on twentieth-century topics is now almost universally present in Dutch as well as in Belgian schools of architecture.
 5.  With respect to every individual of a class; by, among, to, etc., everyone concerned.
a1475 (1447)  O. Bokenham Mappula Angliae in Englische Studien (1887) 10 33 Vniuersaly in alle Englyssh men so moche is growyne and customyd þe variable & þe vnstable chaunge of cloþyngis..þat yche of hem as now adayes semythe for to been Newtur gendur.
1553  T. Wilson Arte of Rhetorique sig. A.iiijvA straunge matter, that thinges doen in Englande seuen yeres before, and the same vniuersallie forgiuen, should afterwardes be laied to a mannes charge in Roome.
1667  Milton Paradise Lost ix. 542 Thy Celestial Beautie.., there best beheld Where universally admir'd.
1683 London Jilt i. 15 There are so many Widdows who bewail their Husbands with one eye, and lure new Lovers with the other, that it is almost universally the Mode.
1725  F. Hutcheson Inq. Ideas Beauty & Virtue iv. 39 Some Works of Art acquire a distinct Beauty by their Correspondence to some universally suppos'd Intention in the Artificer.
1765 Museum Rusticum IV. 344 Rye is generally (nay universally, I think) allowed to be a better bearer than wheat.
1838  A. De Morgan Ess. Probabilities 167 These tables..are almost universally used by the assurance offices.
1869  E. Dunkin Midnight Sky 8 The universally-known seven stars in Ursa Major.
1907  J. Conrad Secret Agent ii. 36 Mostly at the expense of the universally regretted Baron Stott-Wartenheim.
1950 Western Folklore Apr. 138 The cowboy's six-shooter speaks a language universally understood.
1996  W. D. Gehring Amer. Dark Comedy iii. 80 Her performance, which still stands up today, was universally praised at the time.
 6.
 a.  Logic and Philos. In the manner of a universal proposition or concept; in relation to all the members of a class or genus. Cf. universal adj. 6b.
1551  T. Wilson Rule of Reason sig. GvjvThe argument is euermore made from the generall, to the kynde vniuersally.
1620  T. Granger Syntagma Logicum ii. vi. 231* The predicate is in the Subiect vniuersally, that is, in euery subiect of the same kinde.
1678  R. Cudworth True Intellect. Syst. Universe i. ii. 67 The Essences of singular Bodies..being Abstracted from those Bodies themselves, are consider'd Universally.
1697  tr. F. Burgersdijck Monitio Logica i. xxxi. 122 The enunciation universally first is only that in which the predicate agrees or convenes with the subject.
1725  I. Watts Logick ii. ii. 237 Mankind..generally have an Inclination to magnify their Ideas, and to talk roundly anduniversally concerning any thing they speak of.
1792  E. Christian Dissertation 35 Those demonstrations are a series of propositions eternally and universally true, whether they are written in Greek, Latin, French, or English.
a1831  R. Whately Logic in Encycl. Metrop. I. 200/1 The term ‘necessary to life’ is affirmed of food, but not universally; for it is not said of every kind of food.
1873 Mem. Amer. Acad. Arts & Sci. IX. ii. 343 The logical atom, or term not capable of logical division, must be one of which every predicate may be universally affirmed or denied.
1902  J. M. Baldwin Dict. Philos. & Psychol. II. 740/1 We say that anything, P, is predicated universally (dictum de omni) when nothing can be subsumed under the subject of which P is not intended to be predicated.
1959 Philos. & Phenomenol. Res. 19 364 The conception..embodied in the Magna Charta stresses the connection between rights and..the individual, who is entitled to enjoy them (even if he is not yet conceived universally, as man qua human being).
2001 Philos. Rev. 110 317 For similar reasons, [the proposition]P does not imply such universally quantified truths as..that all living beings contain DNA molecules.
 b.  In respect of all the things of a particular class or kind. Chiefly Law: in respect of all parts of a person's estate (and its concomitant rights and duties); cf. universal adj. 11,  university n. 2e. Now rare.
1660  R. Boyle New Exper. Physico-mechanicall Pref. p. xiii, Being almost universally a Linguist.
1695 Laws & Acts 5th Session 1st Parl. William xxiv. 42 His foresaid Possession or Purchase shal be repute a behaviour as Heir, and a sufficient passive Title to make him represent his Predecessor universally, and to be lyable for all his Debts and Deeds.
1751  A. McDouall Inst. Laws Scotl. I. i. vii. 193 The heir serving in lands lying within shires, where the interdiction was not duly registred..will be liable upon the passive title of behaviour..universally to his debts.
1766  Ld. Kames Remarkable Decisions Court of Session 1730–52 37 The defender's possession of the estate subjected him universally to the predecessor's debts.
1823 Encycl. Brit. XI. 681/1 A heir..represents the deceased universally, not only in his rights, but in his debts.
1867  H. S. Maine Anc. Law vi. 175 When a Roman citizen adrogated a son..he succeeded universally to the adoptive child's estate, i.e. he took all the property and became liable for all the obligations.
1941 Northern Ireland Legal Q. 4 196 The principle cannot be made to extend universally to the destruction of things used by the servant.

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